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27A-1-1 Definitions.
     27A-1-1.   Definitions. Terms used in this title mean:
             (1)      "Administrator," that person designated by the secretary of social services to discharge the administrative functions of the Human Services Center including the delegation of responsibilities to the appropriate Human Services Center staff;
             (2)      "Appropriate regional facility," a facility designated by the department for the prehearing custody of an individual apprehended under authority of this title which is as close as possible in the immediate area to where the apprehension occurred; and is no more restrictive of mental, social, or physical freedom than necessary to protect the individual or others from physical injury. In determining the least restrictive facility, considerations shall include the preferences of the individual, the environmental restrictiveness of the setting, the proximity of the facility to the patient's residence, and the availability of family, legal and other community resources and support;
             (3)      "Center," the South Dakota Human Services Center;
             (4)      "Chronic disability," a condition evidenced by a reasonable expectation, based on the person's psychiatric history, that the person is incapable of making an informed medical decision because of a severe mental illness, is unlikely to comply with treatment as shown by a failure to comply with a prescribed course of treatment outside of an inpatient setting on two or more occasions within any continuous twelve month period, and, as a consequence, the person's current condition is likely to deteriorate until it is probable that the person will be a danger to self or others;
             (5)      "Co-occurring substance use disorder," refers to persons who have at least one mental disorder as well as an alcohol or drug use disorder;
             (6)      "Danger to others," a reasonable expectation that the person will inflict serious physical injury upon another person in the near future, due to a severe mental illness, as evidenced by the person's treatment history and the person's recent acts or omissions which constitute a danger of serious physical injury for another individual. Such acts may include a recently expressed threat if the threat is such that, if considered in the light of its context or in light of the person's recent previous acts or omissions, it is substantially supportive of an expectation that the threat will be carried out;
             (7)      "Danger to self,"
             (a)      A reasonable expectation that the person will inflict serious physical injury upon himself or herself in the near future, due to a severe mental illness, as evidenced by the person's treatment history and the person's recent acts or omissions which constitute a danger of suicide or self-inflicted serious physical injury. Such acts may include a recently expressed threat if the threat is such that, if considered in the light of its context or in light of the person's recent previous acts or omissions, it is substantially supportive of an expectation that the threat will be carried out; or
             (b)      A reasonable expectation of danger of serious personal harm in the near future, due to a severe mental illness, as evidenced by the person's treatment history and the person's recent acts or omissions which demonstrate an inability to provide for some basic human needs such as food, clothing, shelter, essential medical care, or personal safety, or by arrests for criminal behavior which occur as a result of the worsening of the person's severe mental illness;
             (8)      "Department," the Department of Social Services;
             (9)      "Essential medical care," medical care, that in its absence, a person cannot improve or a person's condition may deteriorate, or the person may improve but only at a significantly slower rate;
             (10)      "Facility director," that person designated to discharge the administrative functions of an inpatient psychiatric facility, other than the center, including the delegation of responsibilities to the appropriate facility staff;
             (10A)      "Health care," any care, treatment, service, or procedure to maintain, diagnose, or treat a person's physical or mental condition;
             (11)      "Incapacitated by the effects of alcohol or drugs," that a person, as a result of the use of alcohol or drugs, is unconscious or the person's judgment is otherwise so impaired that the person is incapable of realizing and making a rational decision with respect to the need for treatment;
             (12)      "Informed consent," consent voluntarily, knowingly, and competently given without any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, threat, or other form of coercion after conscientious explanation of all information that a reasonable person would consider significant to the decision in a manner reasonably comprehensible to general lay understanding;
             (13)      "Inpatient psychiatric facility," a public or private facility or unit thereof which provides mental health diagnosis, observation, evaluation, care, treatment, or rehabilitation when the individual resides on the premises including a hospital, institution, clinic, mental health center or facility, or satellite thereof. An inpatient psychiatric facility may not include a residential facility which functions primarily to provide housing and other such supportive services when so designated by the department;
             (14)      "Inpatient treatment," mental health diagnosis, observation, evaluation, care, treatment, or rehabilitation rendered inside or on the premises of an inpatient psychiatric facility when the individual resides on the premises;
             (15)      "Least restrictive treatment alternative," the treatment and conditions of treatment which, separately and in combination, are no more intrusive or restrictive of mental, social, or physical freedom than necessary to achieve a reasonably adequate therapeutic benefit. In determining the least restrictive alternative, considerations shall include the values and preferences of the patient, the environmental restrictiveness of treatment settings, the duration of treatment, the physical safety of the patient and others, the psychological and physical restrictiveness of treatments, the relative risks and benefits of treatments to the patient, the proximity of the treatment program to the patient's residence, and the availability of family and community resources and support;
             (16)      "Mental health center," any private nonprofit organization which receives financial assistance from the state or its political subdivisions and which is established or organized for the purpose of conducting a program approved by the department for the diagnosis and treatment, or both, of persons with mental and emotional disorders;
             (17)      "Next of kin," for the purposes of this title, the person's next of kin, in order of priority stated, is the person's spouse if not legally separated, adult son or daughter, either parent or adult brother or sister;
             (18)      "Outpatient commitment order," an order by the board committing a person to outpatient treatment, either following a commitment hearing or upon a stipulation of the parties represented by counsel;
             (19)      "Outpatient treatment," mental health diagnosis, observation, evaluation, care, treatment or rehabilitation rendered inside or outside the premises of an outpatient program for the treatment of persons with mental, emotional, or substance use disorders;
             (20)      "Physician," any person licensed by the state to practice medicine or osteopathy or employed by a federal facility within the State of South Dakota to practice medicine or osteopathy;
             (21)      "Program director," the person designated to discharge the administrative functions of an outpatient program for treatment of persons with mental, emotional, or substance use disorders;
             (22)      "Resident," "patient," or "recipient," any person voluntarily receiving or ordered by a board or court to undergo evaluation or treatment;
             (23)      "Secretary," the secretary of the Department of Social Services;
             (24)      "Severe mental illness," substantial organic or psychiatric disorder of thought, mood, perception, orientation, or memory which significantly impairs judgment, behavior, or ability to cope with the basic demands of life. Intellectual disability, epilepsy, other developmental disability, alcohol or substance abuse, or brief periods of intoxication, or criminal behavior do not, alone, constitute severe mental illness;
             (25)      "Treatment," a mental health diagnosis, observation, evaluation, care, and medical treatment as may be necessary for the treatment of the person's mental illness or rehabilitation;
             (26)      "Treatment order," an order by the board of mental illness, as part of an inpatient or outpatient commitment order, or as a separate order by the circuit court or board after an inpatient or outpatient commitment ordered by the board, that requires a program of treatment as specified in this title.

Source: SDC 1939, § 30.0101; SDCL § 27-1-1; SL 1975, ch 181, § 42; SL 1976, ch 168, § 2; SL 1987, ch 197, § 1; SL 1991, ch 220, § 1; SL 1992, ch 190, §§ 1, 2; SL 1995, ch 154, § 1; SL 1996, ch 181, § 1; SL 2000, ch 129, § 1; SL 2011, ch 1 (Ex. Ord. 11-1), § 163, eff. Apr. 12, 2011; SL 2012, ch 149, § 1; SL 2013, ch 122, § 1; SL 2013, ch 125, § 6.


Chapter 27A-1

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